Fire Fighting Dynamics: Interpretation of the National Standard for Electric Bicycle Safety Technical Specification

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I. Why does the national standard for electric bicycles need to be revised?

China is the world’s largest producer and sales of electric bicycles. After years of development, electric bicycles have gradually become an important means of transportation for consumers on short-distance trips. The total social population is about 200 million, and the annual output is more than 30 million, and most of them are used. Lead-acid batteries, about 10% of products using lithium-ion batteries . The current mandatory national standard “General Technical Conditions for Electric Bicycles” ( GB17761-1999 ) was released in 1999 . In recent years, many electric bicycle products have gradually become larger, heavier and faster, and some of the indicators have exceeded the provisions of the current standards, and the masses have called them "super cars." For example, the current standard stipulates that the maximum speed of an electric bicycle does not exceed 20km/h , but the current maximum speed of some electric bicycle products in actual use exceeds 40km/h ; the current standard specifies that the weight of the entire vehicle does not exceed 40kg , but the weight of the current part of the electric bicycle is currently More than 70kg . The performance of these products is gradually approaching that of electric mopeds, but their safety performance is poor and their traffic safety risks are large, causing a large number of casualties. In addition, due to the poor fire-retardant performance of some electric bicycles, the number of fires caused in recent years has gradually increased, causing many serious casualties and property losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen the management of electric bicycles by revising the current standards and to effectively protect people's lives and property.

Second, what is the principle of the revision of the new standard?

The four departments of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (SASAC) have always insisted on proceeding from the overall interests of economic and social development, based on leading the high-quality development of China's electric bicycle industry, with the "three guarantees and one insistence" as the The fundamental principle is to ensure the safety of life and property of consumers, ensure the common interests of all road transport participants, ensure the basic travel needs of the majority of consumers, adhere to the non-motor vehicle properties of electric bicycles, and revise the guiding standards. The standard name is "Safety Specification for Electric Bicycles".

The first is to ensure the safety of consumers' lives and property. Based on the careful analysis of the development of electric bicycle products and the types of accidents that have occurred in recent years, the new standard adheres to the bottom line of safety and sets the maximum speed, vehicle weight, motor power, battery voltage, external dimensions, and fire retardancy. Other key indicators ensure the safety performance of the product in terms of mechanical safety, driving safety, electrical safety and fire safety.

The second is to ensure that the common interests of all road traffic participants are maximized.

Electric bicycles are widely used in our country. Some consumers consider it from the point of view of convenient use. It is hoped that the speed of electric bicycles will be as fast as possible, the bigger the volume, the better, the higher the loading capacity the better, and the stronger the dynamic performance is, the better. However, as an electric vehicle, electric bicycles need to take into consideration travel efficiency, travel safety, and road traffic. As electric bicycles belong to non-motorized vehicles, they mainly run on non-motorized lanes. At present, the width of non-motor vehicle lanes in many areas of our country is limited and people and vehicles are mixed. If the speed, volume, weight, and dynamic performance of electric bicycles greatly exceed those of bicycles, etc. Other non-motor vehicles will occupy a large amount of space in non-motorized lanes, or affect the normal traffic order of non-motorized lanes, or cause interference to the normal traffic of automobiles and other motor vehicles, and there are hidden traffic safety hazards. Therefore, the revision of the new standard has always been based on the principle of ensuring the common interests of all road transport participants to be maximized, and prudently studied and determined each key technical indicator.

The third is to ensure the basic travel needs of consumers.

Taking into account the expansion of consumer travel and the acceleration of the pace of life in recent years, the new standard has been appropriately relaxed based on current standards in terms of maximum speed, vehicle weight, and motor power to meet the basic travel needs of consumers. Among them, the maximum speed was adjusted from 20km/h to 25km/h , the mass of the vehicle, including the battery, was adjusted from 40kg to 55kg , and the motor power was adjusted from 240W to 400W , allowing consumers to get a greater ride than ordinary pedal bicycles. The radius reduces the physical requirements for cyclists and improves the efficiency of travel. It is in line with low carbon and environmental protection concepts and requirements.

The fourth is to insist on the non-motorized properties of electric bicycles. Electric bicycles are essentially bicycles with assisting functions and should meet the relevant characteristics of bicycles that can be driven by humans. Therefore, the electric bicycle must have a pedaling function, which is fundamentally different from other motor vehicle products such as electric mopeds. This is also a necessary precondition for the integration of electric bicycles into non-motorized vehicles. In addition, the pedaling function can also be used as an important supplement to the electric drive, allowing consumers to continue driving when the vehicle is faulty or battery is depleted, avoiding long-distance implementation and facilitating consumer use.

Third, what are the potential legal liabilities for driving "super car"?

Once a “traffic car” has caused a traffic accident, as some of its key technical indicators exceed the standards for electric bicycles, and its dynamic performance is significantly higher than that of other non-motor vehicles, it will be judged as a motor vehicle in judicial practice, so that drivers Responsibility for the identification of accidents and follow-up compensation will bear more responsibilities. For example, in 2014 , Mr. Liu from Beijing took the super electric bicycle driven by his colleague Mr. Yang on the way to work. He ran into Mr. Wang’s car when driving in reverse, causing Mr. Liu’s left leg to fracture. After commissioning the appraisal, Mr. Liu believed that Mr. Yang had driven the car. electric car battery in the state without power, the quality has reached 50.95kg, beyond the standard electric bicycles, motorcycles meet the standard, is a motor vehicle, the verdict Wang car insurance company to compensate 120,000 in pay high insurance limits for Liu Mr. Yang exceeds the risk of paying the compulsory insurance, Mr. Yang shall bear 55% of the liability for compensation, Mr. Wang bears 35% , Mr. Liu bears 10% of his own ; if Mr. Yang drives a non-motor vehicle, he only has to bear the same responsibility as Mr. Wang. In 2015 , Mr. Ren of Beijing rode an electric bicycle that exceeded the standard and knocked down an elderly man who crossed the road. The old man died after being rescued. After identification, the maximum speed of the electric vehicle Mr. Ren rode was over 20km/h , which exceeded the “General Technical Conditions for Electric Bicycles” and was recognized as a motor vehicle. Mr. Ren was responsible for the accident. The local public prosecutor’s office was involved in suspected traffic accidents and did not obtain the machine. Mr. Ren filed a public prosecution with the driver’s license of motor vehicles and driving on roads of motor vehicles that had not been registered by the traffic management department of the public security organ. In 2015 , Zhejiang's Xu Moumou drove a certain brand of electric two-wheeled vehicles. The front of the vehicle collided with the walking person in front of him, resulting in Sun Mou’s death. He died after being rescued by the hospital. After the appraisal, the quality of the vehicle reached 101.2kg , which did not meet the requirements of the "General Technical Conditions for Electric Bicycles" and the relevant definition of motor vehicles in Article 119 of the "Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China". The two-wheeled vehicle is a two-wheeled motorcycle and belongs to a motor vehicle. According to the accident certificate, Xu did not obtain a motor vehicle driving license and drove the two-wheeled motorcycle blindly on the road. His behavior violated the relevant provisions of the "People's Republic of China Road Traffic Safety Law." The fault was caused by the accident. The direct cause. After hearing the court held that Xu Moumu did not fulfill his duty of care, blindly driving, and paid insufficient attention to the roads and pedestrians in front. He was the main reason for the accident's own fault. He was sentenced to compensation by Xu Moumou. The family members of the deceased had a total of 125,0565.5 yuan in medical expenses, family lost time, death compensation, and dependants’ living expenses . Considering that the accident vehicle manufacturer has clearly stated in the owner's manual that the portable electric vehicle it produces is a low-speed, safe and environmentally-friendly tool with the same rated load as electric bicycles and bicycles, and can ride on the essentials of riding. The road, that is, the non-motorized vehicle that clearly shows the production and sale of the vehicle to the consumer, has not carried out any necessary explanation for the serious overweight problem of the vehicle. Therefore, there are defects in the warning instructions of the product and mislead consumers. Therefore, the accident electric car has an unreasonable risk, and there is a causal relationship with the occurrence of the accident . It is advisable that the vehicle production company bear the 20% responsibility ratio, that is, 250113.1 yuan.

How will the safety performance of electric bicycles be improved after the new standard is implemented?

The first new standard is to force some of the original clauses to be replaced by full-text enforcement, thereby eliminating the loopholes left by the “non-veto” items; secondly, based on the analysis of various types of fire accidents that occurred in electric bikes in recent years, there are Targeted to increase the fire safety performance, flame retardant performance, charger protection and other security content; Third, the maximum speed and battery proposed tamper-proof (anti-retrofitting) requirements, do not give the product after leaving the factory to increase the maximum speed and vehicle weight left Space; Fourth, it has stipulated the external dimensions, defined the indicators such as the center distance of the front and rear wheels, the width of the vehicle body and the length of the saddle so as to prevent the vehicle from being long and wide, and at the same time avoiding the safety hazards caused by the electric bicycle carrying adults. The fifth is to increase the wading water performance requirements to ensure the electrical safety when riding on a rainy day. Sixthly, it increased the prompt speed of the vehicle speed and solved the problem that the electric bicycle of the masses criticized the sound is small and the speed is fast, and the early warning cannot be given when approaching from behind. Seventh, the requirements for the preparation of the manual were added and improved. The content must include prompting the cyclist to observe traffic regulations, paying attention to driving and safety, and checking before riding.

5. Why can't the top speed of an electric bicycle be too high?

The new standard stipulates that the maximum speed of electric bicycles must not exceed 25km/h . The main consideration is that if the speed is too fast, the probability of accidents will be directly increased. Once an emergency situation occurs, the time for the cyclist to make the corresponding hedging action is short. Therefore, the braking distance will also become longer, it is easy to collide with other means of transport or pedestrians, and sometimes even out of control, such as slipping and falling, causing a lot of personal injury accidents. Therefore, controlling the speed of the electric bicycle within a reasonable range is an important prerequisite for ensuring safety.

6. Why must the size and weight of electric bicycles be limited?

The new standard stipulates that the center distance between the front and rear wheels of electric bicycles should not exceed 1.25m , the width of the vehicle body should not exceed 0.45m , and the weight of the vehicle (including batteries) should not exceed 55kg . The main consideration is that in recent years, some “overriding vehicles” have become longer and wider, they have become heavier and heavier, and their appearance and performance have been gradually motorized. This has severely displaced the space of non-motorized vehicles. Vehicles can easily collide with other non-motorized vehicles and pedestrians. At the same time, if the weight of the electric bicycle is too heavy, the collision will cause serious damage to the other party due to the impact. Therefore, in order to ensure traffic safety, the length, width, and weight of the electric bicycle must be limited.

7. Why must electric bicycles have pedaling function?

Basically speaking, an electric bicycle is a bicycle with an electric assist function. It should meet the relevant characteristics of a bicycle, that is, it can be driven by human power. If there is no pedaling function, there is no essential difference between the electric bicycle and the electric moped in terms of product form, power source, and mode of use, and it cannot be included in non-motorized vehicle management. In addition, the pedal-ride function enables consumers to continue driving when the vehicle is out of order or when the battery is running low, avoiding long-distance implementation and making it more convenient for consumers. According to international experience, only electric bicycles with pedaling can be included in the European Union, Japan and other countries and regions. For this reason, the new standard states that electric bicycles must have a pedaling function.

VIII. Why must electric bicycles improve fire retardant performance?

In recent years, frequent fire accidents of electric bicycles can easily cause a group of fatal injuries and fire accidents, which seriously threatens people's lives and property. Through investigating and analyzing the causes of these accidents, it has been found that most of the body materials of electric bicycles do not have the requirements of fire retardant. If an electrical failure such as a short circuit occurs, an open flame will occur within 30 seconds, and then the flammable materials of the entire vehicle will start burning. The temperature of the flame can rise to 1200 degrees Celsius in 3 minutes after the fire , and quickly ignite the surrounding flammable objects. If there is a fire in the room, the escape time for the personnel is very limited. According to statistics, from 2013 to 2017 , a total of 34 fire accidents involving three or more people died of electric bicycles caused a total of 34 fire accidents , resulting in 158 deaths; in December 2017 , an electric vehicle occurred in Shijiadian Township, Chaoyang District, Beijing City. A bicycle accident caused 5 deaths and 9 were injured. In September 2017 , a group of renters in Yuhuan City, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province suffered a fire due to a short circuit in the electric circuit of the electric bicycle, killing 11 people and injuring 12 people. Therefore, the new standard imposes requirements on the fireproof and flame-retardant performance of electric bicycles to reduce the risk of fire accidents.

Nine, the new standard on the charger is there a requirement?

As more and more fires are caused by electrical faults and charger failures in electric bicycles in the past two years, this standard has added and improved the electrical safety and charger safety contents, including the wiring wiring installation, short-circuit protection, and brake power-off functions. Flow protection function, anti-runaway function, charger protection against electric shock and reverse connection, etc. will help protect public life and property safety, promote the sound development of electric bicycle industry, promote the promotion of electric bicycle technology innovation and advanced technology, and further standardize Market Order. Taking into account that the current "Electric Bicycle Electrical Safety Requirements" and "Electric Bicycle Charger Technical Requirements" two standards are in the process of development, will make more detailed requirements on the electrical safety of electric bicycles and charger safety, in order to avoid duplication, this standard Only the most important indicators concerning electrical safety and charger safety are specified.

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